Python for Network Engineers

10 More Git Commands Everyone Should Know

by: George El., February 2021, Reading time: 3 minutes

Amend your last commit

git commit -m "first commit"
git add my_file1
git commit --amend

You end up with a single commit. You must not have pushed the brach somewhere

Discard changes in working directory

The recommended command is “git restore”. The old command is “git checkout” Discard changes of a file in working directory

git restore <file>     
or
git checkout <file>
(this is a bit ambiguous, is <file> a branch or a file?)
or
git checkout -- file

Unstage one file, but leave its actual modifications untouched

git restore --staged <file>
or
git reset HEAD <file>
or
git reset <file> 
(this can be ambiguous, is it a tag or a file path?)
or
git reset -- <file>  
(-- tells git that what comes afterwards is a file path)

Ustage all files from stage area

git reset 
or 
git reset HEAD
or
git restore .

Restore a file from a previous commit

git restore --source 43534f index.html
git restore --source master~2 index.html
git checkout 43534f -- index.html

Unstage all files from stage area and delete working directory modifications

git reset --hard

Delete the last 3 commits

Git reset HEAD~3

Undo the changes of one commit by creating another commit

Git revert hash

Remove untracked files from the working tree

git clean -nfd : dry run, force, recursive
git clean -fd : force, recursive

Show a diff of a file between two commits

git diff HEAD~2 HEAD -- <file>
git difftool --tool=vimdiff HEAD~1 HEAD <file>

check differences between two branches

git diff master dev

check differences between two commits

git diff b722f1650b9fb33e0990beec027c097526c61478  eab54d0ec21a1d7e351fee4c67139

check differences between current and previous commit

git diff HEAD HEAD~1
or
git diff HEAD~1

check differences between the HEAD and the second to last commit

git diff HEAD~2

check differences between the HEAD (current state/latest revision) and a previous commit:

git diff HEAD b722f1650b9fb33e0990beec027c097526c61478 

check what changed since yesterday or a specific date

git diff @{yesterday}
git diff @{2019-01-01}

check all changes to a specific file:

git log --follow /path/to/file

show your remote server

git remote -v

add a remote

git remote add remote-name https://github.com/repo-name

get changes from a remote

git fetch <remote>
if you want to merge them with your current branch
git pull

push your changes to the remote

git push <remote> <branch>
e.g.
git push origin master

rename remote

git remote rename remote-oldname remote-new-name

remove remote

git remote remove remote-name

To see the commit history restricted to only commits affecting a file use

git log -- filename

Show log for a specific branch

git log master

Stash files

Lest say you are in the middle of some changes you need to switch to another branch to fix a bug You should never commit half-done work. You can save your work in a temp area called stash

git stash
git stash list
git stash apply stash@{0}
git stash drop stash@{0}
or
git stash pop
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